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They taught students how to use root words, suffixes, prefixes, and verb endings and believed this focus on academic English gave all their students an advantage on the state test. Per Clare Heidema , effective readers, including mathematics readers and mathematics problem solvers, have the following characteristics. They can:. George Polya's Problem-Solving Techniques contain details of his four principles that have become a classic for math problem-solving: understand the problem, devise a plan, carry out the plan, and look back.

Heidema noted several reading and writing strategies for problem solving associated with Polya's techniques. Teachers should introduce each one at a time, model them, and provide for whole-class practice followed by independent practice. Math strategies include:. K-N-W-S: Students create a four-column chart for the word problem in which they identify "what facts they know K , what information is not relevant N , what the problem wants them to find out W , and what strategy can be used to solve the problem S. Students begin by skimming the problem to get a general idea as to its nature. They ask what the problem is about and what information is needed to solve it.

They read the problem again to highlight details needed to solve it. They question again what is needed to solve it e. They then compute the answer, set up and solve an equation, or construct any needed graphs, tables, diagrams, and so on. Finally, they question again about the correctness and reasonableness of their answer. Three-level guide: This is a graphic organizer with three parts.

Early-on the teacher creates this, but later as students become familiar with the strategy they might create it and share with others. It addresses literal, interpretive, and applied comprehension. In part 1, there is a set of true-false facts suggested by information given in the problem. Part 2 has the math concepts, ideas, or rules that might apply to the problem. In each part, students decide which element s in the list can help solve the problem.

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Then each takes a turn to write the steps in words for its solution. The first member writes a step, then passes the group solution paper to the next member of the group who writes the next step, and so on. Groups then present their solution to the class. As a group member reads the words, another puts the math symbols on the board. When all groups who tackled the same problem have presented, methods and solutions can be compared. They can use ordinary language and math language.

Note that the RAFT method is also useful for formative assessment. You'll find examples within our Math Methodology: Assessment Essay. In Building Mathematical Comprehension: Using Literacy Strategies to Make Meaning Laney Sammons applies reading comprehension strategies and research into mathematics instruction to help in building students' mathematics comprehension. Chapters address comprehension strategies for mathematics, recognizing and understanding mathematics vocabulary, making mathematical connections, increasing comprehension by asking questions, the importance of visualizing mathematics ideas, making inferences and predictions, determining importance, synthesizing information, monitoring mathematical comprehension, and the guided math classroom.

The program was designed primarily for learners in lower elementary grades.

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Canton City Schools in Ohio adopted this model for curriculum alignment for reading instruction, and tied Ohio's academic content standards closely in classroom instruction. Richard Allington , past president of the International Reading Association, shared another view on assisting struggling readers.

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He proposed intervention all day long , as new hope for struggling readers, rather than the current situation in many schools where struggling readers are provided 30—60 minutes of appropriate supplemental reading instruction with a reading specialist. Students "then spend the remaining five hours a day sitting in classrooms with texts they cannot read, and that cannot contribute to learning to read, let alone contribute to the learning of science or social studies" p.

All students need texts of an appropriate level of complexity all day long to thrive in school. Once we have a more differentiated set of curriculum materials, then we might expect a better balance of whole-class, small-group, and side-by-side lessons.

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While all students benefit from small group and side-by-side teaching, it is the struggling readers who seem to benefit most, perhaps because they have the greatest need for explicit teaching and scaffolded, personalized instruction" p. For a three-tiered response to intervention program for reading in the primary grades, Gersten et al.

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Per the Executive Summary: "This report provides new information on the prevalence of RtI practices in elementary schools, illustrates the implementation of RtI practices for groups of students at different reading levels, and provides evidence on effects of one key element of RtI: assigning students to receive reading intervention services.

Several websites provide reading resources for learners with dyslexia. It can be difficult to help such learners to read and write, if you have no experience with this disability. When reading, words and letters can jump around on the page, as seen in this realistic simulation of reading with dyslexia Ritschel, They are designed to be short one minute fluency measures used to regularly monitor the development of pre-reading and early reading skills.

The University of Oregon also has posted 5 Big Ideas in Beginning Reading , along with resources for addressing each: phonetic awareness, the alphabetic principle, fluency with text, vocabulary, and comprehension. Ratings are provided by teachers. Search by type apps, console and PC games, websites , subject areas, grade level, and price free, free to try, paid. Graphite also offers Common Core Explorer to help with locating tech resources in its database aligned to the Common Core Standards.

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See a list of its top 8 Apps to Introduce Reading posted at T. Journal , February Educators should be aware of research that has found reading comprehension to be higher when using print-based text over digital content.

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Two significant influencing factors were " 1 time frame: the paper-based reading advantage increased in time-constrained reading compared to self-paced reading; 2 text genre: the paper-based reading advantage was consistent across studies using informational texts, or a mix of informational and narrative texts, but not on those using only narrative texts" Abstract section.

Comprehension might also be affected by the type of digital device used and the need for scrolling through text, the latter of which might increase cognitive load on readers "by making spatial orientation to the text more difficult for readers than learning from printed text" p. Nevertheless, reading digital content has become integral to education. Such factors should be considered in design of instruction, testing, and tasks that learners will do.

The issue of teaching reading is compounded when reading digital content as it "introduces nonlinear options for proceeding through texts," according to Gina Biancarosa , p. Elaborating on this issue for struggling readers, she stated:. On one hand, it gives readers access to background knowledge, definitions of unfamiliar terms, efficient location of relevant information through the use of search tools, and motivating choices for personal inquiry.

On the other hand, gaining proficiency in digital reading is no means automatic. As grade 3 is thought to be a transition grade between learning to reading and reading to learn, Biancarosa recommended "reading instruction after 3rd grade should target skills, strategies, and behaviors that research has identified as central to reading in digital environments" p.

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Such skills would include teaching search strategies and text structures of informational websites so that learners can find their own background information on a topic rather than relying on the teacher to provide it, how to gather relevant information from targeted reading, and how to gain efficiency when reading digital content, as reading online is slower than reading digitally for deep meaning and developing higher-level literacy. This latter document begins with the essential components of online reading:.

A new literacies perspective of online reading comprehension frames online reading comprehension as a process of problem-based inquiry involving the new skills, strategies, dispositions, and social practices that take place as we use the Internet. Within these five areas reside the skills, strategies, and dispositions that are distinctive to online reading comprehension as well as others that are important for offline reading comprehension.

Further, "online reading comprehension includes the online reading and communication skills required by texting, blogs, wikis, video, shared writing spaces such as Google Docs , and social networks such as Nings" para. ORCA resources are available for this endeavor, including classroom lessons on reading to locate, evaluate, synthesize, and communicate. There is also a Checklist of Online Reading Skills. There are apps available that allow annotation of digital materials, which have the potential to enhance comprehension.

For example, Hypothesis is open-source software to annotate the web. It would be particularly useful for e-books or online articles to highlight content and add notes to it, just like one might do when reading print-based text. Imagine the teacher adding questions or comments to the text to consider as you read. It can be used by one person or groups to discuss, read socially, take personal notes, organize research, and more.

See examples of its use in education. A similar product is NowComment. Become familiar with issues surrounding use of print-based texts versus digital or e-texts. You'll find features of an ideal e-textbook and concerns about using e-textbooks. The authors elaborate on benefits of print-based texts, the importance of a reader's preference for print-based or digital text and use based on familiarity with a particular technology, the advantages of e-texts, and recommendations for impactful e-text learning.